THOUGHTS AND IDEOLOGIES BEHIND ETHICS THEORIES AND APPROACHES ON ETHICS

THOUGHTS AND IDEOLOGIES BEHIND ETHICS

THEORIES AND APPROACHES ON ETHICS

 

Utilitarian Theory

This theory is based on the ideology that, as part of society, do maximum good to others; or at least abstain from disturbing others. Under this approach people follow ethics, to make the most good and least harm to others.

 

As per this theory utility of a human being is determined on the basis of how much he is useful or harmful to society. As part of our social life we can live by giving maximum good to others. Or at least we can keep away from creating problems or disturbance to others. This feeling or approach is known as Utilitarian Approach.

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. It means that, the act of one is determined as ethical or unethical, on the basis of outcome it produces. It is a form of consequentialism. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war. It is also the most common approach to moral reasoning used in business in times of ethical dilemma.

Deontological Theory

The ideology behind this theory is this: we have duty to respect others; or people have the right to get respect. Here we believe that our ethics are the rights of others. This theory explains our moral duties and obligations. This theory tries to find out some dignity in others and believe that they have a right to get respect. Thus, it becomes our duty to do such a good practice.

 

Fairness/Justice Theory

The ideology behind this theory is: we should always be fair and unbiased. As per this approach we follow ethics as we want to be equal to all. This approach is based on the Greek philosophy that we must give equal treatment to all. All persons are equal and all should be equally respected.

The justice theory was derived from rights theory. In this sense, Equal justice is also the right of humans. Fairness and justice theory believes that ethics should be followed to ensure justice and equality.

 

Common Good Theory

As per this approach, we follow ethics for the welfare of everyone in the society. The ideology is the social welfare. This approach is also known as social welfare approach. We cannot ensure welfare of society through unethical practices. We believe that only ethical practice can bring human welfare. So, we should follow ethics.

 

Virtue Theory

As per this theory, ethics is followed by many as a habit and with an intention to develop personality. The ideology behind this theory is: be good human beings with good personality.

We know that good people follow values in life. These are virtues of human beings. To be good people with good personality we must follow ethics.

Virtue ethics are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind, character and also the sense of honesty. Thus virtue theory states that virtues are formed in the minds of people and as a consequence, people behave accordingly.

 


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