PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY
Following are the principles of TQM
Primary responsibility of top management
This principle says that
quality management is the primary duty of top managers. The top management
should create an organizational structure, product design process, production
process and incentive package that can encourage and reward good quality. Management
should take proper decisions and steps to implement quality management and
Quality should be customer focused and it
should be evaluated using customer-based standards
This principle says that,
the quality improvement efforts of the company should start from the customers.
Customers are the target group of the company, and therefore, whenever the
customer is approached with a request or complaint, it should be rectified at
the first visit itself. Moreover, the quality of the product should be
evaluated on the basis of customer based standards.
Continuously improve the quality of
products and services
Quality should be
continuously evaluated, because quality improvement is a never-ending process. Using
the right tools and equipment, and providing training to workers the quality of
output can be ensured. In addition, production and communication systems should
be equipped to detect quick identification and solution of quality problems.
Every employee should be made
responsible for achieving good product quality
Quality is possible only
when the entire organization work for it. However, the quality can be damaged
by anyone in the organization. Therefore, the responsibility of attaining
quality should be shared by all persons in the organization. All persons from
all levels and all functions, should be involved in the quality process. Each
and every employee should be made responsible for ensuring quality in their
respective areas of work. This translates into self-inspection by workers
themselves rather than by separate quality control personnel. It requires
workers to cooperate in identifying and solving quality problems.
Inspection of the process is as
important as inspection of the product
Quality of the product can
be ensured only through quality process. If the methods and materials used do
not satisfy quality requirements, we cannot expect quality output. Inspecting the quality of final product alone
cannot ensure quality product. Quality cannot be ensured only by inspecting a final
product, so make it right starting from the first step. Making it right or
doing it right from the very first step should be the goal of every worker.
Quality should be regularly monitored
and problems should be corrected immediately
Statistical methods can play
effective role in monitoring quality and identifying problems quickly. However,
self-inspection and assessment of work by employees do better in early
detection of problems. Customer assessments and evaluations are also important in
the quality monitoring mechanism.
Uninterrupted flow of communication is
to be ensured
For the attainment of
quality, proper communication flow should be ensured. Regular communication
with staff at all levels is must. Two-way communication at all levels must be
Regular flow of
communication enlightens the employees about their roles and responsibilities.
Both management team and employees must get opportunity to make their quality
Quality is a journey, not a destination
The organization should
strive for continuous improvement in quality and therefore it is said that
quality is a journey not a destination. Excellent product quality is the result
of continuous innovative efforts of employees and research team on an ongoing
basis. For the purpose they can use their experience and experiments. However,
continuous improvement does not happen on its own.
Quality is not only the product quality
but also the quality of the whole organization
The term quality becomes
fruitful, only when the products and the organisations attain quality
requirements. Various areas of organisations such as sales, finance, personnel
and all other functions should perform with quality. Quality should be the
philosophy of the organization. That means, quality of the product is only a
part of organizational quality. In other words, product quality is the result
of organizational quality.