PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Following are the principles of TQM
Primary responsibility of top management
This principle says that quality management is the primary duty of top managers. The top management should create an organizational structure, product design process, production process and incentive package that can encourage and reward good quality. Management should take proper decisions and steps to implement quality management and quality products.
Quality should be customer focused and it should be evaluated using customer-based standards
This principle says that, the quality improvement efforts of the company should start from the customers. Customers are the target group of the company, and therefore, whenever the customer is approached with a request or complaint, it should be rectified at the first visit itself. Moreover, the quality of the product should be evaluated on the basis of customer based standards.
Continuously improve the quality of products and services
Quality should be continuously evaluated, because quality improvement is a never-ending process. Using the right tools and equipment, and providing training to workers the quality of output can be ensured. In addition, production and communication systems should be equipped to detect quick identification and solution of quality problems.
Every employee should be made responsible for achieving good product quality
Quality is possible only when the entire organization work for it. However, the quality can be damaged by anyone in the organization. Therefore, the responsibility of attaining quality should be shared by all persons in the organization. All persons from all levels and all functions, should be involved in the quality process. Each and every employee should be made responsible for ensuring quality in their respective areas of work. This translates into self-inspection by workers themselves rather than by separate quality control personnel. It requires workers to cooperate in identifying and solving quality problems.
Inspection of the process is as important as inspection of the product
Quality of the product can be ensured only through quality process. If the methods and materials used do not satisfy quality requirements, we cannot expect quality output. Inspecting the quality of final product alone cannot ensure quality product. Quality cannot be ensured only by inspecting a final product, so make it right starting from the first step. Making it right or doing it right from the very first step should be the goal of every worker.
Quality should be regularly monitored and problems should be corrected immediately
Statistical methods can play effective role in monitoring quality and identifying problems quickly. However, self-inspection and assessment of work by employees do better in early detection of problems. Customer assessments and evaluations are also important in the quality monitoring mechanism.
Uninterrupted flow of communication is to be ensured
For the attainment of quality, proper communication flow should be ensured. Regular communication with staff at all levels is must. Two-way communication at all levels must be promoted.
Regular flow of communication enlightens the employees about their roles and responsibilities. Both management team and employees must get opportunity to make their quality concerns.
Quality is a journey, not a destination
The organization should strive for continuous improvement in quality and therefore it is said that quality is a journey not a destination. Excellent product quality is the result of continuous innovative efforts of employees and research team on an ongoing basis. For the purpose they can use their experience and experiments. However, continuous improvement does not happen on its own.
Quality is not only the product quality but also the quality of the whole organization
The term quality becomes fruitful, only when the products and the organisations attain quality requirements. Various areas of organisations such as sales, finance, personnel and all other functions should perform with quality. Quality should be the philosophy of the organization. That means, quality of the product is only a part of organizational quality. In other words, product quality is the result of organizational quality.